What is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is the leading malignancy in men over the age of 50. It is due to the abnormal proliferation of prostatic tissue cells. It is often a slow-growing cancer and remains localized at first. Later, it may extend as it spreads to nearby tissues and organs and then metastasizes to other more distant organs (lymph nodes, bones, lungs, etc.) via the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. Preventing such a development by early screening is a major public health issue, all the more so because as life expectancy increases, so does the frequency of this cancer.
Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells, fuelled by male hormones such as testosterone, grow uncontrollably to form tumors.
Causes of Prostate Cancer
- The risk of prostate cancer increases steadily with age and it is rare in men under 50.
- Your risk is higher if you have close relatives (a father, uncle or brother) who have had prostate cancer.
- If several women in your family have had breast cancer (especially if they were diagnosed at less than 40 years of age) an inherited faulty gene may be present. The gene may also increase the risk of the men in that family getting prostate cancer.
- If you are African-Caribbean or African-American you are at highest risk whereas if you are Asian, you are at lower risk.
- A high fat diet may increase your risk.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
problems urinating such as difficulty in starting to pass urine, a weak, sometimes intermittent flow of urine, dribbling of urine before and after urinating, a frequent or urgent need to pass urine or a need to get up several times in the night to urinate.
- A feeling that your bladder is not completely empty.
- Pain when you orgasm.
- Rarely, blood in the urine.
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and will examine you for Prostate Cancer. He or she may do some of the following tests or refer you to a hospital specialist (urologist) for them.
A digital rectal examination (DRE) is an examination of your prostate. Your doctor will insert a lubricated, gloved finger into your rectum and feel your prostate through the wall of your rectum. If there is prostate cancer it may feel harder than usual, or knobbly…
Treatment of Prostate Cancer in India
Your treatment for prostate cancer will depend on a number of factors such as your age and whether the cancer has spread and if so, how far. There are a number of treatments which are described below.
Active monitoring of Prostate Cancer : Sometimes, particularly for slow-growing tumors, no treatment is the best course of action. This is often called active monitoring or watchful waiting. Your condition will be monitored closely with routine check-ups. You can start treatment at any time and will be advised to do so if tests show the cancer is growing…
Surgery of Prostate Cancer in India : Newer techniques that are used for treating prostate cancer with radiotherapy include conformal radiotherapy (CRT) or high-resolution intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Conformal radiotherapy shapes the radiation beams to match the shape of the prostate. This reduces the radiation received by the healthy surrounding cells in…
Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer in India : Newer techniques that are used for treating prostate cancer with radiotherapy include conformal radiotherapy (CRT) or high-resolution intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Conformal radiotherapy shapes the radiation beams to match the shape of the prostate.
Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer in India : Brachytherapy involves implanting radioactive seeds into, or next to, the tumour in your prostate. Radiation can be released slowly over time. The seeds lose their radioactivity over about a year. Brachytherapy is more effective if the tumour is small and you have early prostate cancer.
Hormone therapy for Prostate Cancer in India : Hormone therapy blocks the action of male sex hormones that help cancer grow. This can slow the growth and spread of prostate tumors but will not kill the cancer cells…
New treatments for Prostate Cancer in India : There are new treatments being developed such as cryotherapy. This is surgery to freeze the prostate with liquid gas and kill cancer cells. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a treatment given using a machine that gives off high frequency sound waves. Some cancer cells die when this is focused directly onto them…
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